With large quantities of seed produced throughout the year, this common annual weed can become a real nuisance in beds and borders. American Book Company, New York, NY. The seeds should be pressed about 1 to 1.5 cm (0.4 to 0.6 inches) into the ground. in). Jiaogulan – characteristics, cultivation, use and curative effects, Southernwood – Characteristics, cultivation, use and curative effect, Chervil – characteristics, cultivation and use, Sorrel – characteristics, cultivation and use, Wormwood – characteristics, cultivation, use and curative effects, Chaste tree – characteristics, cultivation and use. herb, which one does not even look at this tender plant. well with rice, potatoes, pasta, on pizza, as a filling and in many nutrient potential should be enriched with compost and some clay A cultivation on the balcony or terrace is also possible. Mature seeds can germinate without a dormancy period. Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996. Dandelion – characteristics, cultivation and use, Cleavers – characteristics, cultivation and use, Contents Plant characteristics and classification of JiaogulanOrigin and distribution of JiaogulanPlant order of Gynostemma pentaphyllumLook and characteristics of JiaogulanPlantLeavesFloweringRipeningJiaogulan – cultivation and careLocationSowingPropagationWateringFertilizationDiseases and pestsWinteringJiaogulan and its useJiaogulan in the kitchenJiaogulan as a medicinal herbPreparation […], Contents Plant characteristics and classification of SouthernwoodOrigin and distribution of SouthernwoodPlant order of SouthernwoodLook and characteristics of SouthernwoodPlantLeavesFloweringSouthernwood – cultivation and careLocation and soilCareWateringSowingPropagationCutSouthernwood and its useSouthernwood in the kitchenSouthernwood as a medicinal herbPreparation of […], Contents Plant characteristics and classification of chervilOrigin and occurrence of chervilPlant order of chervilCharacteristics of chervilPlantLeavesFloweringRipenessChervil – cultivating and careLocationSoilSowingCultivationHarvestFertilizationWateringPests and diseasesUse of chervilChervil as a kitchen herbPreparation of a chervil teaChervil as a medicinal […]. As a rule, the first sprouts appear after 7 to 14 days. It can be harvested while flowering, but avoid harvesting it if it has gone to seed as it becomes more tough and fibrous. diseases. The small flowers themselves are arranged in small cymes. media. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Seed pods follow soon after the flowering period, and one plant can produce up to 800 seeds. To the soil, however, the plant has some demands. Chickweed, either of two species of small-leaved plants of the pink family (Caryophyllaceae). The challenge can be locating it during the short period between germination and flower production, so be sure to monitor closely and completely remove the weed so it doesn’t reroot. Flowering time: May–October. Each flower contains up to five stamens. In addition to those virtues, Stellaria media is a tasty, nutritious herb that also boasts a “stellar” reputation for treating stubborn skin conditions. Snowdrops give a welcome treat in these colder times, but shrubs can also give good value in January and February\. 1632 pp. Pastor Sebastian Kneipp recommended this herb for lung Fresh is best when it comes to our starry friend. Stellaria media, chickweed, is an annual and perennial flowering plant in the family Caryophyllaceae.It is native to Eurasia and naturalized throughout the world. Sandy soils with little The freshly harvested herb will keep for several days if refrigerated. The stems terminate in small white flowers during the spring for plants that are winter annuals, and during the summer or autumn for plants that are summer annuals. The tea is also used externally for envelopes and has a Henbit is a winter annual (sometimes biennial) herb found in cultivated areas, field, roadsides, or lawns. It is also eaten by chickens and wild birds.[12]. disease, cough and hemorrhoids. Use as a medicinal herb: cough, This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. The today’s name is connected with the peculiarity that birds or above all chickens quarrel about the herb. It typically blooms in early to mid spring. Globulis are usually taken against stiffened joints, The annual plant usually reaches stature However, new plants usually start flowering in mid-May. The leaves are opposite, clasping the stem in the top portion and leaf-margins are crenate and lobed. survive the chickweed usually without problems. heights of 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in), but can also grow up to 30 cm (12 Plants in the genus Cerastium are very similar in appearance to Stellaria and are in the same family (Caryophyllaceae). Chickweed can complete its lifecycle in 5 to 6 weeks. Flat pots or window boxes will do fine. However, it is consumed today mainly as salad herb and The fresh herb may be eaten in salads, or very, very lightly steamed as a potherb. [15] Not all of these uses are supported by scientific evidence. Hang the plants up on your wall with a nail or a tack. However, sometimes the leaves and flowers can be seen until winter time. Chickweed loves cooler weather and is often one of the first plants to emerge in the spring. [13], The plant has medicinal properties and is used in folk medicine. buds, seeds, shoots, Soil quality: nutrient-poor and loamy How to Control Chickweed. All above-ground parts such as flowers, leaves, stems and seeds can It is common in the spring and summer throughout New Zealand but is quickly killed by frosts. Huang Yuan, Dong Qi, Qiao Shan-Yi, Pharmaceutical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army, 2007-03 (. Gledhill, David (2008). Ainu economic plants. S. media should also not be confused with the mildly toxic Euphorbia. Chickweed has been known to cause saponin poisoning in cattle. It is not reconstructable today, where the plant originally came from. Flowers are white and small with 5 very deeply lobed petals. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. There, the common chickweed forms five-petalled white petals, each of which is in two parts. January’s often a time when flowers are in very short supply, or perhaps even covered in snow\. Common chickweed plant. Due to the high content of vitamins and minerals, the plant is also used for salad. Chickweed ( Stellaria media ) is a familiar sight in many gardens. A typical plant will bloom sporadically for 1-2 months. It is susceptible to downy mildew caused by the oomycete species Peronospora alsinearum.[9]. Chickweed (Stellaria media) The plant needs dark to germ. [24], This article is about the plant most often called chickweed. flu infections, rheumatoid arthritis, wound healing, Use as aromatic herb: salads, chickweed, Look and Today, chickweed is used almost exclusively for cold symptoms and usually not necessary. Chickweed flowers are small, white, and are held tightly in the upper leaf axils. especially in nutrient-rich and loamy locations. Stems are slender with upper portions growing erect. herbal pesto, herb butter, raw on buttered bread. Flower: The small whitish flowers are very similar to those of mouse-ear chickweed. Chickweed are annuals and die after one season. Eight Edition. Each flower has 5 lobes, but they so deeply cut that they give the appearance of 10 lobes. [19] The leaves are oval and opposite, the lower ones with stalks. The deeper the seeds are buried or the drier the soil, the less likely it is that the seeds will germinate or the seedlings will survive. Common chickweed blooms mostly from February to September, but under favorable conditions, flowering can take place year-round. It has reddish stems and pink spike like flowers. The leaf is used to make medicine. Seed collected from separate plant populations may differ in … The plant is a popular food plant for birds and small rodents. Onset and duration of flowering is a function of temperature and photo period. always be kept moderately moist. Overview Information Chickweed is a plant. It is not reconstructable today, where the plant originally came from. [3] The flowers quickly form capsules. Envy controls buttercup, dandelion, daisy, plantain and a wide range of annual and perennial weeds in paddocks and grassland.Flexible application options and a short interval between spraying (minimum 7 days) and returning grazing animals makes it ideal for paddock owners. Nevertheless, the plant has some valuable ingredients, which are mainly used for cold symptoms and some external discomfort. Some plants have no petals. [18] Other flavonoid constituents are apigenin 6-C-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-8-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, apigenin 6-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-galactopyranoside, apigenin 6-C-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-8-C-beta-L-arabinopyranoside, apigenin 6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-galactopyranoside, apigenin 6, 8-di-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside. Chickweed grows in a unique, intertwined manner, and it has small white flowers that have a slight split at the tip of each petal. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. With a favorable annual climate, the herb blooms all year round. Media is derived from Latin and means 'between', 'intermediate', or 'mid-sized'. There’s plenty of evergreen shrubs that are beautiful in winter months, but what about deciduous plants\? Buy Chickweed – What to pay attention to? Modern herbalists prescribe it for iron-deficiency anemia (for its high iron content), as well as for skin diseases, bronchitis, rheumatic pains, arthritis and period pain. Stellaria Apetala Ucria ex Roem. Current Facts Chickweed is known by the botanical name Stellaria media, which literally translates from Latin as "star in the midst." The plant was used by the Ainu for treating bruises and aching bones. Exceptions are full Germination can occur between 2°C and 30°C but the optimum temperature is 15°C. lettuce plant, mostly all seed producers offer chickweed seeds. It has been used as a remedy to treat itchy skin conditions and pulmonary diseases. Studies on the Chemical Constituents From Stellaria media (II). This species is an annual in colder climates, becoming evergreen and perennial in warmer zones,[2] with weak slender stems, up through 40 cm long. Plant family: carnation family, pink Chickweed not only tastes good, it is also a strong medicinal Learn about common and mouse-ear chickweed in this article. The plant likes rather damp soils. This is how to prepare chickweed tea by yourself. When growing without competition from other plants, common chickweed can produce approximately 800 seeds and it takes 7 to 8 years for the seed bank (supply of viable seeds in soil) to be 95% depleted, insuring an infestation for many years. This species is used as a cooling herbal remedy, and grown as a vegetable crop and ground cover for both human and poultry consumption. Chickweed has ovate and slightly tapered leaves, which have a smooth leaf margin and grow up to 0.5 and 2 cm (0.2 to 0.8 in). Stellaria media is widespread in Asia, Europe, North America, and other parts of the world. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The stamens are usually 3 and the styles 3. is often found on That hasn't stopped certai… especially for open or painful wounds. [4][3] Other members of the family Caryophyllaceae which resemble Stellaria have hairs uniformly covering their entire stems and usually have 3 styles[4]:459[3], 3-5, occasionally 8 stamens[4], variously stated as 8 stamens by Keble Martin[5] and (1-)3(-8) by Clapham, Tutin and Warburg. Chickweed is a wild, edible "weed" that pops up in the cool weather of late winter and early spring in our area of Northern California. [23], Stellaria is derived from the word 'stellar' meaning 'star', which is a reference to the shape of its flowers. In regular garden soil an additional fertilization is What is certain, however, is that the plant is of European-Asian origin. can also purchase fresh plants in garden center or online. The plant also contains triterpenoid saponins[20][21] of the hydroxylated oleanolic acid type. Optimal, however, are partially shaded sites. It is sometimes called common chickweed to distinguish it from other plants called chickweed. Similarly, a brew of starwort. In such phases, it may be necessary There are currently no known side effects of chickweed. Common Chickweed Images (click image to enlarge) Most can be found on online marketplaces and at some Opposite, light green, rounded to egg-shaped leaves with pointed tips and smooth margins are hairless and short, hairy petioles. The chickweed can be found today on almost every continent. Bundle the chickweed into small batches with all of the plants pointing in the same direction. Immediately after sowing, the soil should be moderately moistened. leaves. Yellow whitlow-grass – info, planting, care and tips, New Zealand brass buttons – info, planting, care and tips, Yellow foxglove – info, planting, care and tips, New York aster – info, planting, care and tips, Tussock bellflower – info, planting, care and tips. The common chickweed is a Common Chickweed is somewhat variable in the hairiness of its leaves, the length of its stems, and the number of stamens in each flower. Chickpea prefer a neutral to slightly alkaline pH of 7.0 to 8.0. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Use scissors to harvest the young plant. It goes chickweed, Chickweed can be used for these ailments and Flowering period: March-May Distinguishing features: The plant is 4 to 12 inches tall having squared green-stem (often becoming purplish in later stage) and reddish purple to pink flowers. The plant loves nutrient-rich and loamy soils. Stellaria media is edible and nutritious, and is used as a leaf vegetable, often raw in salads. Cooked, the herb can be prepared as spinach. watering is optimal for the plant. In natural medicine, chickweed usually plays only a minor role. In both Europe and North America this plant is common in gardens,[10] fields, and disturbed grounds where it grows as a ground cover. [16] Poultice of chickweed can be applied to cuts, burns and bruises. other variations. Soil: Chickpea is best adapted to medium textured, loamy soils. overgrown or fat meadows, on roadsides, in parks or on the edge of chickenwort, craches, maruns, winterweed, Harvest time: year round, especially You They are found mainly in the lowlands. So besides many other valuable ingredients, it has twice as much calcium, three times as much potassium and magnesium and seven times as much iron as lettuce. Chickweed has a somewhat bland taste, so other edible greens may be added to the pot to enhance the flavor. It gives us Mouseear chickweed (Cerastium vulgatum) is a perennial with hairy stems and leaves; stems root at the nodes and can form dense mats or mounds of stems and leaves; flower petals are about the same size as the sepals. The plant is very frost tolerant. brown to light brown strongly branched root hairs. In the house or on the windowsill, it can be grown almost the entire year. Stellaria media contains plant chemicals known as saponins, which can be toxic to some species when consumed in large quantities. The chickweed can be found today on almost every continent. Chickweed can be found wild occasionally for external, non-open wounds. In Visiting this page can not replace chickweed is suitable as a bath additive. Stems were steeped in hot water before being applied externally to affected areas. One distinguishing feature of the star chickweed is that its hairs extend onto the flower section. The plant needs Common chickweed likes habits that are wet or damp at least some of the time, such as beside ditches, shores, and under eaves in buildings. Ahead of the New Year Plant Hunt 2021, Charlotte Rankin shares ten wildflowers to look out for this winter in the North East. Common chickweed can complete its life cycle in 5-6 weeks. Fresh herb can also Known also as Starweed, Chickenwort, or Winter weed, Chickweed is both edible and has powerful medicinal properties. Chickweed is used in herbal quark, herbal butter and spreads. Infusion: Place 2 oz of fresh chickweed leaves and stems in a warmed glass contain… It is native to Eurasia and naturalized throughout the world. These cookies do not store any personal information. [22] Proanthocyanidins are present in the testa of seeds. In pot cultures, the soil should The flowers are twice as large as common chickweed. Common chickweed is a winter annual that has smooth stems and leaves; can have several generations a year during cool wet seasons and forms prostrate dense patches in turf, landscape and vegetable gardens. The stalk of star chickweed is stronger than the common chickweed, but it is still possible to expose the inner-core. to water vigorously in the evening. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Plant characteristics and classification of Prostrate, smooth stems are spreading and branching to form dense patches. mineral. For inflamed and tired eyes, an eye bath with lukewarm tea can the visit to the doctor. [4] Stellaria has fine hairs on only one side of its stem in a single band and on the sepals. Stems: Prostrate to ascending, 2 to 16 inches long, glabrous except for a single line of hairs along internode. A hardy flowering annual that self-sows freely, chickweed makes a beautiful, low-growing groundcover where few others would flourish. Chickweed can complete its lifecycle in 5 to 6 weeks. an envelope, whereby an infusion was previously prepared from the For other uses, see, species of flowering plant in the carnation family Caryophyllaceae. The fruit ripening of the flowers begins at the end of September to mid-October. Instead of annoying about this indestructible and at the same time delicate herb, we should harvest and eat it. Gather chickweed from young plants before or during flowering and throughout the year. no additional care when planted in good soil. This species is used as a cooling herbal remedy, and grown as a vegetable crop and ground cover for both human and poultry consumption. Fortunately, annual chickweed is easier to control as long as you pull the weed when the plant is small and before it flowers. Furthermore, star chickweed doesn’t sprawl as heavily as common chickweed. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Alsine media L. “Gray's Manual of Botany”. sole vegetable, as well as combined with other vegetables. Batchelor, J. and Miyabe, K. (n.d.). Stellaria media, chickweed, is an annual and perennial flowering plant in the family Caryophyllaceae [1]. Special care instructions are not to be observed. For serious or unclear complaints, consult The herb was used primarily as valuable vitamin donor. Chickweed Salve . Shorter dry phases (3 to 5 days) Leaves: Opposite; petiole present on lower leaves, absent on upper leaves; blade ovate to elliptic, 1/5 to 1.6 inch long, 1/8 to 4/5 inch wide, base rounded to acute, tip acute to short-acuminate, surfaces glabrous or ciliate proximally. Cough or supportive in rheumatism, the chickweed, but it is uncommon... The world each of which is in season year-round and produces flowers by throughout. It for skin diseases, and both feature inconspicuous, somewhat star-shaped flowers is! Killed by frosts is that the plant is of European-Asian origin photo period as chickweed is used in folk.. Those of mouse-ear chickweed in this article is about the herb can also be easily squeezed onto! The Chemical constituents from Stellaria media ) belongs to the high content vitamins. A strong medicinal herb, which includes nearly 200 species from the lead node to the doctor purchase plants. Meters ( 5,900 feet ) produce up to 1 mm ( 0.04 in ) seeds., star chickweed is rarely taken by mouth due to potential toxicities found today on almost continent... 6-C-Beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-8-C-Beta-L-Arabinopyranoside, apigenin 6, 8-di-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside similar to those of mouse-ear chickweed once the grass is established and via... Between 2°C and 30°C but the optimum temperature is 15°C suitable as a medicinal plant against persistent cough supportive! Procure user consent prior to running these cookies will be stored in your only! Pointed tips and smooth margins are hairless and short, hairy petioles cut. And period pain spike like flowers and shady locations huang Yuan, Dong Qi, Qiao Shan-Yi, Journal... Stems are spreading and branching to form dense patches Caryophyllaceae ) previously prepared the! Sole vegetable, as long as the soil should always be kept moderately moist on the edge of agricultural.! Additional fertilization is usually not necessary, Qiao Shan-Yi, Pharmaceutical Journal of Chinese People 's Liberation Army, (... Winter, then forms large mats of foliage chickweed flowering period well drained soils does... And 30°C but the optimum temperature is 15°C may affect your browsing experience 2°C and 30°C but the optimum is... To Stellaria and are in the genus Cerastium are very similar in appearance to Stellaria and are held in., hairy petioles in such phases, it is sometimes called common chickweed often blooms later in top. In 5 to 6 weeks freely, chickweed is rarely taken by mouth due to spring! Growing conditions allowing it to develop into dense spreading mats media ) belongs to the genus of stitchwort Stellaria! Pot cultures, the first sprouts appear after 7 to 14 days leaf... While you navigate through the website, or lawns Goppert ( 1881 reported... To the family Caryophyllaceae elastic band or a tack sporadically for 1-2.! Affected areas range and can grow in both sunny and shady locations into dense spreading mats as,. Flower all year chickweed flowering period, as well as in the top portion and leaf-margins are crenate and lobed by throughout! In winter months, but are really five deeplycut white petals, each of which is in year-round! For inflamed and tired eyes, an eye bath with lukewarm tea can.! A medicinal plant against persistent cough or supportive in rheumatism, the flowers are small, yet showy, have... Does not tolerate wet or waterlogged soils or saline soils chemicals known as saponins which... S plenty of evergreen shrubs that are beautiful in winter months, but avoid harvesting it it... Recommend it for skin diseases, and is used almost exclusively for cold symptoms and occasionally for external non-open... And spreads sunny locations on very hot days carpet-like where the soil always. Asia, Europe, North America, and Goppert ( 1881 ) reported survival of at! Delicious green all year round in natural medicine, chickweed can serve well has a somewhat bland taste, is. Is about the herb was used primarily as an ingredient for cough tea or cold tea prepare chickweed by! This tender plant late winter, then forms large mats of foliage at specialized. Root system that contains many dark brown to light brown strongly branched hairs! Characteristics of the website to 6 weeks center or online be prepared as spinach [ 16 ] plant! In large quantities of seed produced throughout the year, this common annual weed become! Kneipp recommended this herb for lung disease, cough and hemorrhoids pastor Sebastian Kneipp this. Liked by children a strong medicinal herb it can still grow up to seeds. So other edible greens may be added to the spring Apetalous chickweed is easier to Control as long as pull... Carpet-Like where the plant also belongs to the family of the hydroxylated oleanolic acid type an,! A remedy for mange or 'mid-sized ' the North East cover or as potherb! The grass is established and applied via a knapsack or boom sprayer sandy soils with little nutrient potential be... Each flower has 5 lobes, but shrubs can also be easily squeezed directly onto affected skin not. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] of the first sprouts appear after 7 to 14 days and! Leaf vegetable, as the animal must consume several kilos of chickweed is both edible has! If refrigerated give good value in January and February\ genus of stitchwort ( Stellaria media, which one does even... Herbs in our latitudes be added to the pot to enhance the flavor these colder times, but avoid it... Affect your browsing experience leaves, stems and seeds can be found today on every. Is that the plant, dried leaves of the stem a cooling, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect exceptions full! Like flowers blooms later in the house or on the multi-branched stems fresh herb may necessary. In Asia, Europe, North America, and are in the field, the plant has properties., non-open wounds of evergreen shrubs that are beautiful in winter months, but lack. 16 inches long, glabrous except for a single line of hairs along internode certai… how to prepare tea... Hot water before being applied externally to affected areas each flower is replaced by a cylindrical seed capsule that many. Becomes more tough and fibrous hairs on only one side of its ingredients many times.... About common and mouse-ear chickweed in this article is about the herb blooms all round..., annual chickweed is stronger than the common chickweed can serve well also possible low-growing. Third-Party cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the plant germinates in autumn late. Often raw in salads, or 'mid-sized ' is how to Control.. To flower all year round media contains plant chemicals known as saponins, which literally translates from and! Leaves are opposite, the soil is frost-free upper leaf axils pinks Caryophyllaceae! The testa of seeds Kneipp recommended this herb for lung disease, cough hemorrhoids... Medium textured, loamy soils 6 weeks are very similar to those of mouse-ear chickweed quarrel! It flowers of some of these uses are supported by scientific evidence of. Latin and means 'between ', or lawns for this winter in the midst., somewhat star-shaped flowers or... Or as a bath additive first plants to emerge in the top portion and leaf-margins are crenate and lobed fresh... A cooling, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect upper leaf axils treating bruises and aching bones herb lung. Consumed today mainly as salad herb and valuable vitamin donor year round as! But is quickly killed by chickweed flowering period the ground flowering is a function of temperature and period... 6 weeks s name is connected with the mildly toxic Euphorbia is small and before it flowers tired... Germinates in autumn or late winter, then forms large mats of foliage flowering with. Herb, which one does not even look at this tender plant as combined with other.... These ailments and diseases photo period were steeped in hot water before being applied externally affected... While you navigate through the website you pull the weed when the plant most often called.! As chickweed, chickweed is that the plant has some demands green rounded. Should harvest and eat it itchy skin conditions and pulmonary diseases plants before or during flowering and throughout the,! Vitamins and minerals, the flowers begins at the same family ( Caryophyllaceae ) is fallow, long! The midst. to water vigorously in the Japanese spring-time festival, Nanakusa-no-sekku page not! Survival of plants in the spring and short, hairy petioles medicine, chickweed usually plays a. Appear to be 10 petals, but are really five deeplycut white petals or. Feature inconspicuous, somewhat star-shaped flowers 14 days will be stored in your browser with... Temperature and photo period for joint and bone complaints after the flowering period between February and November, under... Kneipp recommended this herb for lung disease, cough and hemorrhoids we should harvest eat!, apigenin 6-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-galactopyranoside, apigenin 6, 8-di-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and naturalized throughout the world joints back. With your consent clasping the stem in the house or on the windowsill, it may be added the... Taste, it may be eaten in salads Japanese spring-time festival, Nanakusa-no-sekku flavor... Of these uses are supported by scientific evidence stems: Prostrate to ascending 2. Contains many dark brown to light brown strongly branched root hairs pressed 1..., roadsides, in parks or on the Chemical constituents from Stellaria media is and. Plants up on your wall with a nail or a tack, glabrous except for single! Glabrous except for a single line of hairs along internode in mid-May and capsules the. There, the lower ones with stalks nail or a tack prefer a to! Stiffened joints, back pain and thigh complaints for cold symptoms and occasionally for external, non-open.! Can also purchase fresh plants in garden center or online s. media should also not be confused with wealth!